Python and VTK each have their own garbage collection systems, with reference counts as the primary means of tracking references. The two GC systems are tied together by a very simple rule: the python wrappers hold only one reference to the VTK object. Because of this simple rule, there are only two places in the Python wrapper code where we have to worry about VTK reference counts: 1) the point where VTK objects first enter Python and have a PyVTKObject constructed for them, and 2) the point where the PyVTKObject is destroyed by Python's GC system.
The above system would work perfectly except that, several years ago, I added a Python "dict" to PyVTKObject so that python users could add custom attributes to their VTK objects. I even made it possible to add new methods by subclassing VTK classes within Python. Hence, VTK objects can by extended with pure-python attributes and methods. The problem was that these attributes would only last for as long as the PyVTKObject existed. So if a PyVTKObject was e.g. stored in a vtkCollection and then retrieved, it would come back as a stripped object with all of its pythonic attributes removed because only the vtkObject and not the PyVTKObject would be stored. I would work around this by always using pythonic containers to store python-customized VTK objects.
I have finally fixed the python wrappers so that this unexpected stripping of pythonic attributes no longer occurs. Whenever a PyVTKObject is destroyed, its attributes are saved in a 'ghost' object. The ghost is simple, it is just a C struct that holds the pythonic attributes and a weak pointer to the VTK object. Every time a new ghost object is to be added to the list, the weak pointers are checked, and any ghosts for VTK objects that no longer exist are erased. This keeps the "graveyard" from growing continuously.
So now whenever a VTK object pointer enters Python, the graveyard (the list of ghosts) is checked to see if the object used to have special pythonic attributes. If so, then a PyVTKObject is constructed with these attributes. So to all appearances, the user will be getting the old object back again, but really, they are getting a resurrected ghost. I really don't think that I did a good job of explaining all of that. But since I'm just filling some quiet time during my vacation, it will just have to stand as it is.